Anthuriums (andraeanum type) are basically epiphytes (air plants) like orchids. They need to be planted in a well draining mix that will not stay wet. Take care to not place the pot in a container that will not allow the pot to drain completely. If you are placing the pot inside a decorative container that has no drain holes make sure to remove the pot for watering and let it drain completely before putting it back.
Anthuriums need to be protected from direct sun and will look their best if kept in an area of light shade. They do best with temperatures that are between 85 and 60 degrees. Feed them a balanced foliar fertilizer twice a month if they are growing indoors. As with other tropical plants growing indoors, any additional humidity they can be provided will also be a benefit. Each new leaf that grows will be followed by a flower shortly after. After time the plant may begin to get tall and somewhat leggy looking. At this time you can cut the plant back just below the top of the main stem and plant it in another pot. This will begin to root in a week or two and become another plant. The original plant will sprout new growth where the top was cut off. You can also remove the young side shoots that develop from time to time and plant them. Anthurium species Foliage and Anthurium species require the same basic culture as the andraenum types. Some will do best in a hanging pot or basket since there leaves will hang down over the side of the pot such as Anth. spectabile or vittarifolium. Also keep in mind that some of these will produce leaves that can get very long when mature. It is very important to keep these type of Anthuriums out of strong wind, especially the newest emerging leaf since they are very tender while developing.
The easiest way to care for your lava bonsai plant is to fill a saucer or shallow bowl with 1" gravel (like aquarium gravel). Then partially fill the saucer with water. Place the bonsai plant on the stones so the lava rock doesn't sit in water. This will keep your bonsai moist, but no wet. Depending on your home conditions you will need to add a little water to the saucer once a week or so. Once or twice a year you should cut any roots off the bottom of the stone, so they don't grow into the gravel. This will also help your plant stay small. You can trim your plants growth when it starts getting to tall or looks leggy.
Growing: Quite adaptable, but grows best in protected jungle like environments in humus rich, well drained soil; leaves should be somewhat protected from hot, drying winds; blooms well in full sun or partial shade. It is not a beach plant.
Use: Specimen plant; mass planting; tropical foliage and flowers; excellent cut flower material. Propagation: By root division. Insect/Diseases: To control thrips, use diazinon of malathion.
Pruning: Remove dead leaves and flower stalks after blossoming; generally the entire clump is cut to the ground after the flowering period. New foliage grows back readily.
Fertilizing: Apply general garden fertilizer (10-30-10) to the planting bed at 3 month intervals. Yellow, sticky leaves indicate deficiencies in minor elements, usually iron, in poor soil; apply minor element fertilizer to the planting bed at 3 month intervals.
Disadvantages: Established plantings may outgrow garden area allotted to them.
Quite adaptable, but grows best in humus rich, well watered soil. Banana like leaves must be protected from wind and falling debris. Blooms well in areas of full sun of partial shade. Not a beach plant, but will grow near the beach if carefully protected from salt spray and winds.
Use: Specimen plant; mass planting; tropical foliage and flowers; excellent cut flower material.
Propagation: Generally by root division but may be grown from seeds. Insect/Diseases: To control scale, use malathion.
Pruning: Remove dead leaf and flower stalks after flowering; generally the entire clump is cut to the ground after flowering period is completed. New foliage grows back readily.
Fertilizing: Apply general garden fertilizer (10-30-10) to the planting bed at 3 month intervals. Yellow, sticky leaves indicate deficiencies in minor elements, especially iron, in poor soils; apply minor element fertilizer to the planting bed at 3 month intervals.
Disadvantages: Established plantings may out grow garden area allotted them.
The Noni plant is very easy to grow both indoors or out. They are tolerant of many growing conditions. Here they grow up in the mountains and on the beach exposed to salt wind and water. It will thrive in full sun or partial shade with no problems. If you are growing it indoors you will need to watch for spider mites which love the leaves. Not much else seems to bother it here. They are thirsty plants and need a constant supply of moisture but also need very good drainage. They should be repotted into a larger pot and like to have a lot of room for the roots. The size you have should be moved up to a 3 or 5 gal. pot. We keep the size small for shipping. They will also respond happily to regular feeding with a balanced fertilizer. They can be pruned but this should be done more by pinching them back than by cutting them way back since they will not come back quickly from severe pruning and will not always come back fuller. They are not a good plant to try to shape and should be allowed to fill out on their own. Pinching will help to keep the size manageable and help branching.
Use: Fruits and leaves are used medicinally and it is a nice foliage plant and easy to grow.
Propagation: Seed or cuttings.
Disadvantages: None but, the ripe fruit has a very unique odor and if it is not being used for it's medicinal properties you may want to remove them before they get ripe and fall off.
Common name: Angraecum
Number of species: 200
Distribution: Mostly tropical Africa
Habit: This is difficult to generalize, as the plants range from dwarf to quite large, and from upright, as in Ang. sesquipedale and Angraecum compactum, to trailing, as in Angraecum scottianum. Generally, these plants are monopodial, sometimes branching, with fleshy leaves and showy white blooms borne one to many on racemes. The flowers are generally of heavy substance and long lasting.
Culture: The diverse habitats from which these plants originate makes it difficult to prescribe specific cultural advice. Provide strong light, but not direct sun (some, like Ang. sororium, will not bloom without sun). Adequate humidity is a must. Provide the larger plants with an open medium in pots or baskets. Grow the smaller plants in small pots or mount them on pieces of tree fern, cork or wood. An even supply of moisture is important. Larger plants must have either tropical conditions out of doors, or a greenhouse because they can get quite large, up to 36 inches or more. Members of this group include Angraecum eburneum, Ang.sesquipedale, Ang.scottianum (trailing) and Angraecum magdalenae. Smaller plants can be excellent windowsill or under-lights subjects. Among these are Angraecum leonis, Ang.compactum and Angraecum didieri.
Light is the most important factor in growing and flowering cattleyas, whether in a greenhouse or in the home. Bright light to some sun should be given to the plants, with no direct sun in the middle of the day. This means an east, shaded south (as with a sheer curtain) or west window in the home, and 50-70 percent full sun in a greenhouse (3,000 to 5,000 foot candles).
Leaves should be a medium green color, pseudobulbs erect and requiring no staking. Temperatures should be 55 to 60 F at night and 70 to 85 F during the day. Seedlings should have night temperatures five to 10 degrees higher. A 15 to 20 degree differential between day and night is recommended, especially for mature plants. Higher day temperatures can be tolerated (up to 95 F), if humidity, air circulation and shading are increased.
Water should be provided in two ways: in the pot by watering and in the air as humidity. Watering in the container is dictated by many criteria: size and type of the vessel, temperature, light, etc. Mature cattleyas need to dry out thoroughly before being watered again. Seedlings need more constant moisture. Compare the weight of the dry pot to the same size and type of mix; it can indicate if a plant needs water by the relative weight - light means dry, heavy means wet. If in doubt, it's best to wait a day or two until watering. Plants in active growth need more water than plants that are resting. Water below 50 F may injure plants, as well water softened by the addition of salt.
Humidity should be 50 to 80 percent for cattleyas. This can be provided in the home by placing the plants on trays of gravel, only partially filled with water so that the plants do not sit in the water. Air should always be moving around the plants to prevent fungal or bacterial disease, especially if high humidity or cool temperatures exist. In the greenhouse, the humidity is best increased by use of a humidifier. Evaporative cooling increases humidity while cooling the air. Fertilize on a regular schedule.
In fir bark, a high nitrogen (such as 30 - 10 - 10) formulation, or a similar proportion, is used. Otherwise, use a balanced fertilizer. When in active growth, plants need fertilizer at least every two weeks, and when not actively growing, once a month. Fertilizer can also be applied with every watering at one quarter the recommended dilution. Through flushing with clear water every month is recommended to prevent the buildup of fertilizer salts.
Potting is necessary when the rhizome of the plants protrudes over the edge of the pot or the potting medium starts to break down and drain poorly (usually after two to three years). It is best to repot just before new roots sprout from the rhizome, after flowering or in the spring. Mature cattleyas are usually poted in coarser potting material than are seedlings. Until a plant has at least six mature pseudobulbs, it generally should be put into a larger pot and not divided. If dividing a plant, three to five pseudobulbs per division are required. Select a pot that will allow for approximately two years of growth before crowding the pot. Pile mix against one side of the pot and cut off any dead roots. Spread the firm, live roots over the pile, with the cut rhizome against the side of the pot. Fill the pot with medium, working it around the roots. Pack firmly and stake if necessary. Keep the plant humid, shaded and dry at the roots until new root growth is seen.
Phalaenanthe: Evergreen for several years, with thin, tall pseudobulbs, terminal inflorescence, usually appearing in the autumn or twice a year (see culture).
Species such as Den.affine, Den.bigibbum (phalaenopsis), Den.dicuphum and Den.williamsianum: Culture grow warm year round (see below); 60 F nights; water and fertilize heavily when roots appear from new growth; medium light; reduce water and fertilizer after growth finishes. If a short (three to four weeks), cooler (55 F) dry rest is given, and then plants are warmed again (60 F minimum), another growth may mature during winter and flower in the spring. Treat this growth as a summer growth cycle. These grow well with phalaenopsis, except for the rest period. Plants will go deciduous if grown too cool and dry.
Spatulata (Antelope Type): Evergreen for several years. Most are large, vigorous plants with long lasting flowers in summer to several times a year.
Species such as Den.antennatum, Den.canaliculatum, Den.discolor, Den.gouldii, Den.johannis, Den.lineale (veratrifolium), Den.stratiotes, Den.strebloceras and Den.taurinum. Culture warm all year (60 to 65 F nights, 75 to 90 F days); no rest period; can be kept cooler in winter if dry; medium to high light.
Dendrobium: Most of the plant are pendulous, with leaves all along the canes that most often drop with the onset of cooler, drier weather. One to five flowers per node are borne from the nodes of the leafless canes in the midwinter through early spring. Group 1: Species such as Den.chrysanthum, Den.friedricksianum, Den.nobile and Den.wardianum. Culture: Growth period in summer; give warmth, water and fertilize heavily from when roots appear until top leaf appears on canes. Then give high light, little or no water, no fertilizer, cool nights (40 to 50 F). In other words, forget about them. Group 2: Species such as Den.anosmum (superbum), Den.crassinode, Den.falconeri, Den.fimbriatum, Den.findlayanum, Den.heterocarpum (aureum), Den.loddigesii, Den.moniliforme, Den.parishii, Den.primulinus and Den.transparens. Culture: Same as Group 1, but winter nights 55F. Deciduous species need virtually no water in winter.
Callista: Most are pseudobulbous plants with pendent inflorescences. Species such as Den.aggregatum (now properly lindleyi), Den.chrysotoxum, Den.densiflorum, Den.farmeri and Den.thyrsiflorum. Culture: Summer give warmth (60 to 90F), medium light, medium quantities of water and fertilizer. Winter keep cool (50 F nights), medium light, just enough water to keep pseudobulbs from shriveling, no fertilizer.
Latouria: Leaves at top of pseudobulbs are large and leathery, inflorescence erect, flowers commonly yellow-green. Species such as Den.atroviolaceum, den.macrophyllum and Den.spectabile. Culture: same as antelope types, but cooler and drier when resting in winter.
Formosae (Nigrohirsutae Type): Canelike pseudobulbs, with black hairs on leaf sheaths and pseudobulbs often apparent, leading to the popular name nigrohirsutae. Flowers usually white, up to 4 inches across, two to three together from near the end of the pseudobulb. long lasting.
Species such as: Den.bellatulum, Den.dearii, Den.draconis, Den.formosum, Den.infundibulum, Den.lowii, Den.lyonii, Den.margaritaceum, Den.sanderae and Den.schuetzii. Culture: Intermediate to cool year round, 5 to 60 F nights, maximum 85 F days. Water and fertilize when growing; give a slight short rest (dry) when growth is completed. Keep barely moist until growth starts again.
Other Species: Among the popular types are Den.linguiforme, Den.tetragonum, Den.gracillimun and Den.cuthbertsonii (sophronitis). Culture: depends on the plant's native environment. It generally safe to grow them in intermediate to warm (55 to 60 F at night), drying them out in winter ( or as growth stops). Hybrids between sections vary culture.
Tree growing gongoras have erect aerial roots and long, drooping flower stalks that hang below the plants base, some arching and some dangling like chains. Each stalk bears as many as 30 fragrant blossoms up to 2 inches wide. The inverted position and intricate structure of the flower forces nectar gathering bees to slide down the column, thus picking up pollen at its tip before flying on to another flower.
Both species have small pseudobulbs 1 to 2 inches tall with broad, pleated leaves at their apexes. G.armeniaca has paired leaves about 9 inches long. Its waxy, apricot scented flowers with sack like lips all face inward on a flower stalk that grows 2 to 3 feet long. G.galeata grows like G.armeniaca but smaller. Its intensely fragrant brownish yellow flowers have proportionally broader sepals and petals. Both species flower in summer and early autumn and keep their blossoms for only 1 to 2 weeks.
Gongora orchids grow best in filtered or indirect sunlight or under 1,500 foot candles of artificial light for 14 to 16 hours daily. Night temperatures of 55 to 60 F and 65 to 70 F during the day are best. Maintain a humidity of 50 percent. If flowers start to drop, move the plant to a cooler position in deeper shade. Plant in basket filled with osmunda, tree fern chunks, on a slab of cork or tree fern, or pot in a mixture of 7 parts fir bark to 1 part red wood bark and 1 part perlite and 1 part coarse peat moss. Make sure the plant sits slightly above the edge of the basket or pot so that the stalks can project over the side. During periods of active growth, keep the potting mixtures evenly moist, and fertilize at every third watering. Use a high nitrogen 30-10-10 for pot grown plants and a blanched fertilizer such as 18-18-18 for plants in baskets or on slabs. Dilute either formula to half strength recommended on the label. Rest the plant in winter until new growth appears. Repot when plant becomes crowded of when the potting mix begins to deteriorate and drain poorly. Propagate new plants from pseudobulbs, three or four to a group.
Medium size to very epiphytic plants. Pseudobulbs clustered, short or long, few to many leaves. Roots stiff, white, growing upwards or outwards, many branches. Leaves 2 ranked relatively long and narrow, flexible. Inflorescences erect or drooping, many flowered, racemose. Flowers large or medium size often showy. Sepals and petals large, showy, sub-similar. Lip smaller than other segments with 3 low keels. Column short; pollonia 2, cleft, each joined by a caudicle to a separate outgrowth from the laterally extended crescent shaped viscidium.
Distribution: possibly up to 12 species in Southeast Asia and Indonesia to New Guinea, the Philippines and Southwest Pacific. Derivation of name: from the Greek gramma (letter) and phyllon (leaf), in reference to the dark and conspicuous markings of the sepals and petals.
Culture: compost A Temp. Winter min. 15C. Species such as G.scriptum may be grown in large pots or baskets, under humid and only moderately shady conditions. Plenty of water is required during growth, with a drier period when the pseudobulbs are fully grown. G.speciosum, because of its potential size, requires a suitable large container and should not be disturbed too often. Good light and plenty of water throughout the year are other requirements.
Light needs can vary from bright to nearly full direct sun depending on the species. Most will thrive with one to several hours of sun a day. Generally, thicker leafed plants, such as "mule ear" and "equitant" oncidiums, can stand more light. In a greenhouse, 20 to 60 percent shade is required, or about 2,00 to 6,00 foot candles, depending on the plants. In the home east, south or west windows are ideal. Many types of oncidiums will grow under artificial light: Four fluorescent tubes supplemented with incandescent bulbs and placed 6 to 12 inches over the plants are necessary for proper growth. Metal halide and sodium vapor bulbs also provide sufficient light without needing to be so close to the plants.
Temperatures for this group are generally considered intermediate to warm: 55 to 60 F at night, and 80 to 85 F during the day. Temperatures up to 95 to 100 F are tolerated if humidity and air movement are increased as the temperatures, rise, a good general rule in any case.
Water requirements vary with the type of plant. Generally, plants with large fleshy roots or leaves need less frequent watering than thin leafed or thin rooted plants. Watering should be through, and the medium should dry at least halfway through the pot before watering again. This may be every two to 10 days depending on the weather, pot size and material, type of orchid and type of potting medium. Plants not actively growing should be watered less; many species have winter rest periods. Humidity: should be between 30 and 60 percent. Many oncidiums require less humidity than other orchids. Most greenhouses have adequate humidity. In the home, placing the plants above moist pebbles in trays is ideal.
Fertilize regularly while plants are actively growing. Applications of 30-10-10 formulations twice a month are ideal for plants in bark based potting medium. A 20-20-20 formulation should be used on plants in other media of on slabs. If skies are cloudy, applications once a month are sufficient.
Potting should be done when growth is about one half mature, which is usually in the spring. Fine grade potting media are usually used with fine-rooted plants and coarser mixes with large rooted plants; the standard size is medium grade. The plant should be positioned in the pot so that the newest growth is farthest away from the edge of the pot, allowing the maximum number of new growths before crowding the pot. Spreads the roots over a cone of potting medium around the roots. Firm the medium around the roots. Keep humidity and the potting medium dry until new roots form. Equitant and mule ear oncidiums, as well as other fleshy leafed or large rooted plants, can be grown on slabs of cork bark or tree fern or in pots filled with a coarse, well drained medium such as charcoal. This allows the drying between watering that these types needed.
Light is easier to provide for paphiopedilums than many other types of orchids. They require shady conditions, as in the home in an east or west window, or near a shaded south window. In a greenhouse, shade must be provided. Give about 1,000 to 1,500 foot candles. In the home, fluorescent lighting is excellent; suspended two or four tubes 6 to 12 inches above the leaves.
Temperatures for paphiopedilums cover a considerable range. Paphiopedilums are traditionally separated into two groups: the warm growing mottled leafed types and the cool growing green leafed types. A third, increasingly popular group is the warmer growing strap leafed multifloral paphiopedilums. Warm growing types should be kept at 60 to 65 F during the night and 75 to 85 F or more during the day. However, many growers raise all plants in the same temperature range with excellent results. The plants can stand night temperatures in the 40s if necessary (as when grown outside in mild climates), as well as temperatures to 95 F. Care must be taken from rot when cold (keep humidity low, and avoid moisture on leaves or in the crown of plants), and also to protect from burning when hot (shade more heavily and increase humidity and air movement around the plants).
Water must be available at the roots constantly, because all plants in this genus have no pseudobulbs. All of these plants need a moist medium, never soggy, but never dry. Water once or twice a week. Humidity for paphioedilums should be moderate, between 40 to 50 percent, which can be maintained in the home by setting the plants on trays or gravel, partially filled with water, so that the plants never sit in water. In a greenhouse, average humidity is sufficient. Using an evaporative cooling system in warm climates can increase the humidity. Air movement is essential, especially when humidity is high.
Fertilize on a regular schedule, but care must be taken to avoid burning of the fleshy, hairy roots. High nitrogen fertilizers (such as 30-10-10) are recommended when potted in any fir bark mix. In warm weather, some growers use half strength applications every two weeks; others use one quarter strength at every watering. It's important to flush with clear water monthly to leach excess fertilizer, which can burn roots. In cool weather, fertilizer application once a month are sufficient.
Potting should be done about every two years, or as the medium decomposes. Seedlings and smaller plants are often repotting annually. Mixes vary tremendously; most are fine or medium grade fir bark, with varying additives, such as perlite (sponge rock), coarse sand and sphagnum moss. Moisture retention with excellent drainage is needed. Large plants can be divided by pulling or cutting the fans of leaves apart, into clumps of three to five growths. Smaller divisions will grow, but may not flower. Spread the roots over a small amount of medium in the bottom of the pot and fill with medium, so that the junction of roots and stem is buried 1/2 inch deep in the center of the pot. Do not over pot; an average plant should have a 4 to 6 inch pot.
Light is easy to provide for phalaenopsis. They grow easily in a bright window, with little or no sun. An east window is ideal in the home; shaded south or west windows are acceptable. In overcast, northern winter climates, a full south exposure may be needed. Artificial lighting can easily be provided. Four fluorescent tubes in one fixture supplemented by incandescent bulbs are planted 6 to 12 inches above the leaves, 12 to 16 hours a day, following natural day light. In a green house, shade must be given; 70 to 85 percent shade, or between 1,000 and 1,500 foot candles, is recommended. No shadow should be seen if you hold your hand one foot above a plants leaves.
Temperatures for phalaenopsis should usually be above 60 F at night, and range between 75 and 85F or more during the day. Although higher temperatures force faster vegetative growth, higher humidity and air movement must accompany higher temperatures, the recommended maximum being 90 to 95 F. Night temperatures to 55 F are desirable for several weeks in the autumn to initiate flower spikes. Fluctuating temperatures can cause bud drop on plants with buds ready to open.
Water is especially critical for phalaenopsis. Because they have no major water storage organs other than their leaves, they must never completely dry out. Plants should be thoroughly watered and not watered again until nearly dry. In the heat of summer in a dry climate, this may be every other day; in the winter in a cool northern greenhouse, it may be every 10 days. Water only in the morning, so that the leaves dry by nightfall, to prevent rot. Humidity is important to phalaenopsis, the recommended humidity being between 50 to 80 percent. In humid climates, as in a greenhouse, it is imperative that the humid air is moving. Leaves should be dry as soon as possible, always by nightfall. In the home, set the plants on trays of gravel, partially filled with water, so that the pots never sit in water.
Fertilize on a regular schedule, especially if the weather is warm, when the plants are most often growing. Twice a month applications of high nitrogen fertilizer (such as 30-10-10) are appropriate where bark based media are used. Otherwise a balanced fertilizer is best. When flowering is desired, a high phosphorus fertilizer (such as 10-30-20) can be applied to promote blooming. Some growers apply fertilizer at one quarter strength with every watering; this is best for warm, humid conditions. When cooler, or under overcast conditions, fertilizer should be applied twice per month at weak strength.
Potting is best done in the spring, immediately after flowering. Phalaenopsis plants must be potted in a porous mix. Potting is usually done every one to three years. Mature plants can grow in the same container until the potting medium starts to decompose, usually in two years. Root rot occurs if plants are left in a soggy medium. Seedlings usually grow fast enough to need repotting yearly, and should be repotting in a fine grade medium. Mature plants are potting in a medium grade mix. To repot, remove all the old medium from the roots, trim soft, rotted roots, and spread the remaining roots over a handful of medium in the bottom of a new pot. Fill the rest of the pot with medium, working it among the roots, so that the junction of the roots and the stem is at the top of the medium.
Light is crucial factor in blooming most vandaceous plants. There are three types of vandas: strap leafed, semi terete ant terete. The first type has broader, flat leaves, while terete types have round, pencil shaped leaves. The semi teretes are hybrids between the two, with an intermediate leaf shape. Terete types need full sun, and are best grown in high light climates. In a greenhouse, give the plants about 25 to 35 percent shade, less in winter if overcast. Leaves should be a medium green, not dark green. In warm, bright climates, you can grow any type of vanda outside (if warm) with partial shade for strap leaves types and semi teretes (especially in midday in summer) or inside (when cold) in a bright, south window. In climates where winters are overcast, try ascocendas. Grow them outside in summer and in full sun inside during winter. Be careful to acclimatize plants to avoid burn.
Temperatures for most vandas should be warm; a minimum winter night temperature of 55 F is recommended. Colder spells can be tolerated for a short time if it is not windy. Optimum temperatures are 60 to 70 F at night, and a maximum of 95 F during the day. Warmer temperatures mean faster growth, which must be balanced with higher humidity, air movement, and increased water and fertilizer. Days should be warm and humid for optimum plant growth.
Water should be applied copiously when the plants are growing, but the roots must dry quickly. Because of this, and their extensive root system, they are mostly grown in slatted wood baskets, or in pots with a coarse potting medium. If their situation is warm and sunny, they may need daily watering. Water sparingly in the winter or during cloudy weather. Humidity of 80 percent is ideal. In tropical climates this may be easy to obtain. In a greenhouse, this is easier to provide by using an evaporative cooler. In the home, place the plants on trays of gravel partially filled with water. Air movement must be strong.
Fertilize with a balanced (such as 20-20-20) fertilizer applied full strength once a week during warm weather or use a one quarter strength solution at every watering. During cool or cloudy weather, apply fertilizer once every two to four weeks. Use a high phosphorous fertilizer (such as 10-30-20) every third application to promote flowering.
Potting should be done in the spring. Plants in basket do not need to be re potted often. Leave them unless the potting medium breaks down. Set the plant, with the old basket intact, into a container of water to make the aerial roots more pliable, and then set plant and basket into a larger basket. For plants in pots, repot in a slightly larger pot, positioning the plant in the center. Use a coarse medium, whether fir bark, tree fir or charcoal, and work with it around the roots. Keep shaded, humid, but drier at the roots until new tips grow. Do not over pot.
Palms can be easy to grow as long as they get the basic requirements that they need. They should be kept out of strong direct sun when they are young. If you plan on planting them in the ground you should leave them in the pot until they have grown out of the pot size they came in. Keep in mind that they have been growing under shade until shipping so if they are a sun lover you need to introduce them gradually to the sun so that the leaves don't get burned.
All palms should be planted in a good well draining soil or mix. The pot should not be set in a saucer that holds water. Most palms respond well to regular feeding with a good balanced foliar or slow release fertilizer. If your palm is to be grown indoors, they should be placed in an area that they will get good light. Direct sun is usually fine as long as the exposure if not to long. If placed close to a window that gets direct mid day sun it may get very hot and the palm may need more watering or the leaves of some palms may burn. Morning sun or sun filtered through other plants is best. It may be necessary to provide extra humidity for palms indoors since the air is usually drier. This can be done by simply placing a few plants together in one are so that they create their own little atmosphere. You can also place the pots on top of a try of pea or aquarium gravel that has some water in it. Just be sure that the water does not cover the gravel. Water logged pots are not good. It is also a good idea to mist the foliage once a week or so, even better take them outside and shoot them gently with the hose, or if it's not to chilly set them out to enjoy a rainy day once in a while. They will thank you for it. Spider mites can be a problem on indoor plants and a regular wetting of the leaves will help control them. Any scale or mealy bugs that appear should be wiped off with a damp cloth. Remember that a plant that is healthy and growing well is going to be much more resistant to any pest.
A few specific notes on individual species are:
Hyophorbe lagenicaulis - The Bottle Palm, Generally a tropical palm from the Mascarene Islands. It likes a lot of sun and warmth. It is also tolerant of salty air so it can be planted near the coast. It usually will not grow to more than 10 ft. in height. A mature palm will only have up to 5 open fronds at a time. It should be planted in well drained soil and responds well to regular fertilization with a balanced formula. It can also be grown indoors or in a container very easily as long as it gets sufficient light.
Chambeyronia macrocarpa From New Caledonia, this palm can thrive cool Mediterranean temperatures but must be protected from freezes. Temperatures in the low 40s might produce some yellowing in the leaves. In their natural habitat they can be found growing at up to 4000 ft. in elevation. Young plants do best if they are protected from direct sun but older plants can handle it. They should be planted in a soil rich in humus and the soil should be kept moist, regular fertilization will also help.
Carpentaria acuminata From Northern Australia, this is not a palm for cold climates. It is salt tolerant and needs a constant supply of moisture at the roots. If it is given correct requirements it can grow to more than 60 ft. outdoors. It will also do very well indoors in a pot where it will not get as tall but produce lush foliage. It does not like cold or dry conditions. It is a fast grower and likes the sun. It also will benefit from regular fertilization. Areca vestiaria This is generally a tropical palm, but can take some cool temperature as long as it is not exposed to cold wind. They do their best in a shady location, but mature plants can take some sun okay. They do well in pots as long as they have sufficient room for root growth, and should do well indoors. Average mature height is 10 to 20 ft. at most.
Areca catechu - Betel Nut Palm A beautiful tropical palm that can be grown successfully indoors if given adequate humidity. It is best grown in a shady location while young, but older ones will do fine in sun. Care should be taken to keep it from being exposed to cold temperatures and wind. Pinanga caesia These do very well in pots and can be grown successfully indoors. They do not like direct mid day sun. The contrasting shades of green in the mottled leaves tend to be more pronounced when the plants are fed lower amounts of fertilizer than other palms.
The Ti plant is a very easy plant to grow from cuttings. They are fine not being potted for a couple weeks. When you are ready just plant the cuttings about half way down (tops up). in a 5 or 6 inch pot in a good draining potting mix. An alternate way is to lay the cuttings on their side, on top of the potting soil, then put enough mix around the cuttings to leave the top side of the cuttings exposed. This way is used to get more eyes to sprout so you can create more plants. In both cases keep the mix moist (not wet) and keep the pots in an area that get good sunlight. If you have strong sun it may be best to filter it until the plants begin to grow strong. After a couple weeks you will see the eyes begin to grow out of the cutting. These will soon begin growing into new plants. After they get about 1 foot tall you can move them up to a larger pot, or put them in the ground if you live in a warmer area.
For the most part all of the ti's like sun. It bring out more of the color in the colored ti's. However the ti's with pink may look better with some protection from direct sun, but this is not necessary. The green ti does well in shade or sun. Keep in mind that these plants can create large roots so if you are growing them in pots you should move up to a larger pot from time to time as the plant grows.
The Giant Pua Kenikeni is a small tree or shrub that needs tropical conditions to do well. It requires good sunlight to flower but will still bloom in filtered light as long as it is not to shady.
They should be protected from cold temperatures and extreme fluctuations between hot and cold as much as possible. While they are young they should also be protected from strong wind. As they develop a woody trunk this will be of less concern.
You can promote branching by cutting or pinching them back and they can be shaped into a nice canopy over time. The plants we ship are ready to move up to 2 or 3 gallon pots. Make sure to use a quality potting mix that is well draining with a neutral PH. Water enough to keep the roots evenly moist but not soggy.
They can be fed a good balanced fertilizer once a month or so depending on the growing conditions they are in. Because they are a slow growing plant be careful of the tendency to over feed them while young.
First blooms normally appear once they have made about 3 feet of woody growth. Flowers emerge from branch tips.
Plumeria is a small tropical tree that can be raised as a container plant if the necessary conditions for growing are provided.
Being a tropical plant, they must be protected from cold and sudden changes in temperature. They will do their best when the temperatures are between 65 and 95. They need as much sun as possible while in active growth in order to bloom well. The size plants we sell in 3" pots can flower in the first Spring and Summer and each year after that.
Depending on the variety the Plumeria will go dormant and drop it's leaves once a year. This will normally happen in the Fall when the days get shorter and cooler. If you are keeping the plant outside and are in a cold climate this is a good time to bring it in. It should never be subjected to very cold winds or frost.
Once they have gone dormant they should be watered only enough to keep the trunk /stalk from shriveling. In other words, Dont water them. Once the new growth begins to emerge in the Spring then you can begin to water them regularly again. They should always be planted in a well draining media and allowed to dry out between waterings. They should not be kept wet at the roots and complete drainage away from the plant should is a must. They can also be fed a good balanced fertilizer once a month while in active growth.
Plants will branch naturally with time. If you want to promote this then you can cut them back when they have gone dormant. When the plant begins to grow again it will branch where it was cut. The cutting can also be planted and grown as a new plant. After making the cutting (which should be aprox 6 inches long) let it dry out for 2 or 3 days before planting it in a small pot with a good potting mix that drains well. Keep it on the dry side and it should root and begin to grow new leaves in the Spring just like the mother plant.
To keep your lei fresh and color vivid, place in frig without a bag. (If inside a plastic bag, it cannot breathe and will mold.) To preserve for long periods, even years, place in a thick ziplock plastic bag and freeze. Before wearing it, simply thaw on a towel for an hour or two at room temperature, then blot off any moisture droplets. You may also leave your lei out to dry to a nice leather-like texture and it can be enjoyed for years to come. The colors will fade a little. (NOTE: After a week or so, the lei may have a slightly sour odor until it dehydrates. No worry...hang it safely outdoors until it dries totally.) As it dries, coax the lei into your desired finished shape.
Dried ti leaf lei can be seen at home displayed on walls, hanging from car mirrors, around beloved photo frames, entry doors or windows and even plants or floral vases. Anywhere you want a blessing and good wishes, put your ti leaf lei!